In C. S. Lewis's Chronicles of Narnia series of novels, Calormen (pron. "CAH-lor-men" [ˈkaːlɔ(r)ˌmen]) is a large country to the southeast of Narnia. Lewis derived its name from the Latin calor, meaning "heat". When used as an adjective Lewis spelled the name with an 'e' at the end (e.g. a Calormene (pron. "CAH-lor-meen" [ˈkaːlɔ(r)ˌmiːn]) soldier). Narnia and Calormen are separated by a large desert and the country of Archenland. In The Horse and His Boy Calormen is described as being many times the size of its northern neighbours, and it is implied that its army is always either conquering more land or keeping down rebellions, in wars with which neither Narnia or Archenland are involved. The border of the Calormene Empire extends from the Western Mountains to the Great Eastern Ocean. The Calormene capital city is Tashbaan, a vast, walled metropolis near the northern desert separating Calormen from its northern neighbors, located near the mouth of the Calormen River.
The origins of Calormen and the Calormenes are not made clear during the Chronicles. According to the Narnian timeline published by Walter Hooper, Calormen was founded by Archenlander outlaws, who traveled over the Great Desert to the south some 24 years after Archenland's founding; however, some have disputed the 'authenticity' of that timeline. The Calormenes speak a flowery version of the standard English favoured by both human and animal Narnians, which might support this argument; however, Jadis also speaks English. The reason for the ancient Persian, Mughal, and Ottoman Turkish aspects of Calormene culture, or the origin of their religion, has not been satisfactorily explained; this might be seen as supporting an argument that Calormen was founded, at least partially, by an independent group of travelers from Earth, who possibly intermarried with the English-speaking Archenlanders and took their language. (It should be noted that there is no trace of Islam in Calormene religion, which actually appears to be closer to paganism, and in particular Carthaginian religion, than Islam.)
Throughout the times covered by the Chronicles of Narnia, Calormen and Narnia maintain an uneasy, albeit generally peaceable, coexistence. The Horse and His Boy and The Last Battle contain plot lines that focus on Calormen, while some of the other books have peripheral references. In The Horse and His Boy the main characters (one a young member of the Calormene nobility) escape from Calormen to Archenland and Narnia whilst the Calormene cavalry under Prince Rabadash attempts to invade Narnia and capture the Narnian Queen Susan for his bride. The rather small (200 horse) Carlomene invasion force is rebuffed at the gates of the Kingdom of Archenland. In The Last Battle, some level of trade and travel exist between Narnia and Calormen, and a successful invasion by the Calormene military precipitates the end of the Narnian universe.
Calormenes are described as dark-skinned, with the men mostly bearded. Flowing robes, turbans and wooden shoes with an upturned point at the toe are common items of clothing, and the preferred weapon is the scimitar. Lavish palaces are present in the Calormene capital Tashbaan. The overall leitmotif of Calormene culture is portrayed as ornate to the point of ostentation. The people of Calormen are concerned with maintaining honour and precedent, often speaking in maxims and quoting their ancient poets. Veneration of elders and absolute deference to power are marks of Calormene society. Power and wealth determine class and social standing, and slavery is commonplace. The unit of currency is the Crescent. Narnians hold Calormenes in disdain for their treatment of animals and slaves. Conversely, Calormenes refer to the human inhabitants of Narnia as "barbarians".
The ruler of Calormen is called the Tisroc and is believed by the Calormene people to have descended in a direct line from the god Tash, whom the people worship in addition to other gods and goddesses. Calormenes always follow a mention of the Tisroc with the phrase "may he live forever" . Below the Tisroc are his sons (princes), a Grand Vizier, and the nobled class, who are addressed as Tarkaans and Tarkheenas. The nobility have a band of gold on their arm and their marriages are usually arranged at a young age. Beneath them are soldiers of the empire's vast army, merchants, and the peasantry, with slaves being the lowest rung on the social ladder. The Calormene leaders are portrayed as quite war-like, and the Tisrocs generally seem to have a wish to conquer the "barbarian" lands to their north.
The poetry of Calormen is prolix, sententious, and moralizing, "full of choice apophthegms and useful maxims". It includes such pithy sentiments as the following, which doubtless lose something in the translation:
Application to business is the root of prosperity but those who ask questions that do not concern them are steering the ship of folly towards the rock of indigence. Natural affection is stronger than soup and offspring more precious than carbuncles. He who attempts to deceive the judicious is already baring his back for the scourge. Swords can be kept off with shields but the Eye of Wisdom pierces through every defence. Deep draughts from the fountain of reason are desirable in order to extinguish the fire of youthful love.
Interestingly Calormenes disparage Narnian poetry, contending that it is all about things like love and war and not about useful maxims; however, when the Calormen-raised Shasta and Aravis first hear Narnian (or Archenlandish) poetry, they find it much more exciting. Calormen also prizes the art of story-telling, which, according to Lewis, forms part of the education of the nobility. The talking horse Bree, though not fond of most things Calormene, thoroughly enjoys a story told in Calormene style by Aravis
City's and Places in Calormen
Tashbaan : is the capital city of Calormen, a great empire south of the land of Narnia. Tashbaan is a great city built on an island in the delta of a great river. It is described as one of the wonders of the world. The city is a hot and crowded place though with fine streets, magnificent palaces and gardens. It is built on a natural slope, rising to the palace of the Tisroc and the great Temple of Tash at the pinnacle of the hill. The palace of the Tisroc is described as magnificent beyond description and opens onto gardens that run right down to the river wall. Tashbaan is surrounded by a strong wall that rises out of the water and is reached by long bridges from both banks, providing the only place where crossing the great river of Calormen is possible for many miles. The banks of the river are lined with gardens and country houses. (HHB)
Calavar: A province in Calormen. In The Horse and His Boy, Aravis's father, Kidrash Tarkaan, is its governor.
Flaming Mountain of Lagour: A mountain, presumably a volcano, referred to by Emeth as being fearsome, but not as much as Aslan. It is likely in Calormen. (LB)
Great Desert: lies between Calormen and the northern countries of Archenland and Narnia. It can be crossed on horseback in about a night and a day. The desert provides some protection from Calormen invasion since the springs at the great oasis would not be sufficient to enable an army of any size to cross it. There is however a secret and well watered valley leading into Archenland. Fortunately for the northern lands this is not known to the Calormens who are forced to rely on surprise attacks by relatively small cavalry forces (HHB) or by sea (LB).
Ilkeen: A lake in Calormen. On it is one of the palaces of Ahoshta Tarkaan.
Tisroc's Palace: in Tashbaan
Tehishbaan: A City in Calormen. In The Last Battle, the birthplace of Emeth. (HHB)
External Link ( Basiclay a bit more info on Calormen )
Thanks to caius most of the calormen units will be from the crusades mod as in narnia C.S.Lewis gives the calormen a distinct apperence as to the arabs or sacrens , so thanks to caius here are some pics of some calormen units.